african infrastructure Mimi Mollica/Getty Images

Le Big Bond, une nouvelle approche pour l’Afrique

LAGOS – Les pays d’Afrique sub-saharienne ont atteint un stade critique. Éprouvée par l’effondrement du prix des matières premières et par le ralentissement économique de la Chine, la région a vu sa croissance chuter pour atteindre 3,4 % en 2015 – chiffre inférieur de presque 50 % au taux moyen des 15 dernières années. Le taux de croissance économique estimé pour 2016 est par ailleurs inférieur à un taux de croissance démographique d’environ 2 %, ce qui implique une contraction du PIB par habitant.

Une croissance économique soutenue est indispensable au maintien des progrès accomplis en matière de réduction de la pauvreté ainsi que de lutte contre la mortalité infantile, les maladies et la malnutrition. Elle seule peut créer suffisamment d’emplois décents pour la jeunesse bourgeonnante d’Afrique – la plus rapidement croissante au monde. Comme l’a souligné le ministre allemand du Développement Gerd Müller lors d’un récente conférence de presse, « Si les jeunes Africains ne peuvent ni trouver un emploi, ni espérer un avenir dans leur propre pays, ce ne sont pas quelques centaines de milliers mais plusieurs millions d’entre eux qui prendront le chemin de l’Europe. »

L’un des moyens de pérenniser la croissance et de créer des emplois consisterait en une collaboration autour de la planification et de la mise en œuvre d’une augmentation massive des investissements en infrastructures sur le continent africain, et notamment dans les infrastructures publiques. L’Afrique a besoin d’autoroutes, de ponts et de voies ferroviaires pour relier les producteurs ruraux des pays enclavés aux consommateurs africains des villes ainsi qu’aux marchés extérieurs, besoin de transports publics et d’infrastructures Internet permettant une plus grande activité commerciale, ainsi que de lignes de transmission électrique intégrant centrales et réseaux financés par le secteur privé.

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