Globe facing Africa

Warum Afrika fossile Brennstoffe braucht

SANTIAGO – Im Hinblick auf Energie ist Afrika der „erneuerbarste“ aller Kontinente. In den reichen Teilen der Welt entfällt weniger als ein Zehntel der gesamten Energieversorgung auf erneuerbare Energieträger. Die 900 Millionen Menschen in Afrika südlich der Sahara (mit Ausnahme Südafrikas) beziehen 80 Prozent ihrer Energie aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen.

Während eine Person in Europa oder Nordamerika durchschnittlich pro Jahr 11.000 kWh verbraucht (wobei der größte Teil auf industrielle Prozesse entfällt), liegt der entsprechende Wert für eine Person aus Sub-Sahara-Afrika bei lediglich 137 kWh – weniger als ein typischer amerikanischer Kühlschrank in vier Monaten verbraucht. Mehr als 600 Millionen Menschen in Afrika haben überhaupt keinen Zugang zu Elektrizität.

Das liegt allerdings nicht daran, dass man in Afrika so grün orientiert wäre. Die Ursache ist vielmehr Armut. Etwa 2 Prozent des Energiebedarfs des Kontinents werden durch Wasserkraft abgedeckt und 78 Prozent durch die älteste „erneuerbare“ Energiequelle der Menschheit: Holz. Das führt zu massiver Abholzung und zu tödlicher Luftverschmutzung in Innenräumen, der jährlich 1,3 Millionen Menschen zum Opfer fallen.

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