GULSHAN KHAN/AFP/Getty Images

非洲粮食垄断的高昂代价

拉各斯—5月,全球粮食价格上涨1.2%,达到了2017年10月以来的最高水平。这波涨势正在给非洲造成非常大的影响,家庭用于粮食的支出比例也节节攀升。为了确保粮食安全,政府必须迅速行动起来扭转这些趋势,一个起点是整顿囤积居奇的生产商。

据世界经济论坛收集的数据,全世界粮食支出最高的五个国家有四个在非洲。尼日利亚高居榜首,2015年56.4%的家庭收入用在了食品上,其次是肯尼亚(46.7%)、喀麦隆(45.6%)和阿尔及利亚(42.5%)。相比而言,美国消费者的支出为全球最低(6.4%),远低于巴西 (16%)和印度 (30%)等新兴经济体。

如此扭曲的一个原因是相对于收入的粮食价格。随着非洲日渐城市化,人们开始购买更多进口半加工或全加工食品,这些食品比本地生产的食品更贵。而在大部分国家,工资赶不上通货膨胀。

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