Senegal family fishing Ania Freindorf/ZumaPress

Une Afrique de calibre industriel

VIENNE – En moins de huit mois, près d’un quart de millions de migrants, une multitude venant d’Afrique, sont arrivés en Europe par la mer – plus que dans toute l’année 2014 – et la marée ne donne aucun signe de vouloir cesser. Certains fuient les guerres et les persécutions ; d’autres, la plupart des jeunes gens, recherchent de meilleures perspectives d’emploi. Pour s’attaquer à la crise de la migration, il faut donc des initiatives qui visent l’instabilité dans les régions d’origine, mais aussi d’autres mesures pour réduire la pauvreté et créer de l’emploi. L’industrie est la clé pour atteindre le dernier objectif.

Dans la dernière décennie, l’Afrique a enregistré un taux de croissance annuel moyen de 5 %, certains pays dépassant même 7 %. Mais cette croissance, reposant principalement sur les exportations de produits de base et les industries extractives, a démontré une capacité limitée d’entraîner une transformation socioéconomique, ne fût-ce qu’en raison de retombées qui n’ont profité qu’à une petite minorité de la population.

L’Afrique dispose des outils dont elle a besoin pour changer cet état de choses – à commencer par un vaste bassin de main-d’œuvre inexploité. En fait, près de 60 % des chômeurs africains sont de jeunes gens. Le marché de l’emploi de l’Afrique recevra 23 autres millions de jeunes gens cette année alors que la main-d’œuvre totale du continent devrait augmenter de 910 millions de 2010 à 2050.

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