طريق افريقيا للتخلص من الفقر

بيجين-ان جميع الدول المحدودة الدخل لديها الامكانية لتحقيق نمو ديناميكي في الاقتصاد. نحن نعرف ذلك لأننا رأينا ذلك يحصل مرارا وتكرارا فالاقتصاد الفقير الزراعي يحول نفسه الى اقتصاد مدني متوسط الدخل او حتى مرتفع الدخل خلال جيل او جيلين . ان المفتاح هو استغلال الفرص التي تأتي من التصنيع الناشىء عن نقل الصناعات الخفيفة من الدول ذات الدخل الاعلى وهذا ما حصل في القرنين التاسع عشر والعشرين وما زال يحصل اليوم .

لقد استغلت اليابان فرصتها في السنوات التي تلت الحرب العالميه الثانيه حيث استخدمت الصناعات ذات العمالة المكثفة مثل المنسوجات والالكترونيات من اجل تحريك اقتصادها وذلك حتى تآكلت افضليتها التنافسية في تلك القطاعات بسبب ارتفاع تكاليف العمالة ومن ثم سمح التحول لاقتصادات اسيويه اخرى محدودة الدخل مثل كوريا الجنوبية وتايوان وهونغ كونغ وسنغافورة والى حد ما ماليزيا وتايلند بإتباع خطى اليابان.

ان الصين بالطبع هي من المسافرين الذين ساروا مؤخرا على هذا الطريق الذي تم تجريبه على الدوام فبعد اكثر من ثلاثة عقود من النمو الاقتصادي السريع جدا تمكنت الصين من تحويل نفسها من واحدة من افقر الدول على وجه الارض الى اضخم اقتصاد بالعالم والان بدأت الصين ايضا في خسارة افضليتها التنافسية في الصناعات التي تتطلب عمالة مكثفة ومن المفترض ان تأخذ بلدان ناميه اخرى وخاصة في افريقيا مكانها.

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