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填补非洲融资缺口

巴黎—2018年行将结束之际,美国将现有发展机构合并为美国国际发展融资公司(IDFC)。这家新机构拥有600亿美元股本和债务融资能力——比它的各家前身高出一倍有余——按日程将在今年年底投入运营,这是美国发展政策的一个大动作,特别是针对非洲的大动作。它还反映出世界日益认识到,巨大的投融资缺口是非洲未来的一大生存威胁。

非洲的潜力毋庸置疑。在过去二十年中,非洲进入了结构性变化时期,目前正在加速的起点。进步的——虽然并不平均——政治稳定让众多非洲国家不再那么依赖原材料出口,开始成为消费经济。比如,麦肯锡(McKinsey)预测,2015—2015年非洲消费者支出将增加6,450亿美元。

但仍然存在艰巨的挑战。IMF最近预测,到2035年,非洲每年必须创造2,000万个新工作岗位——是当前速度的两倍——才能吸收新晋劳动力大军。这需要巨量投资。但现有的三大主要非国家融资来源无法满足这些需要。

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