Afghanistan : la dégradation de l’environnement favorise la culture de l’opium

Depuis quelques semaines, Hamid Karzaï, le président afghan, a intensifié ses efforts en vue d’accroître l’aide internationale. Il cherche en particulier à obtenir un renouvellement de l’aide militaire et du soutien à la reconstruction des USA, ainsi que des garanties stratégiques accrues. Mais les relations de Karzaï avec les pays donateurs ont commencé à se dégrader, notamment à cause des accusations selon lesquelles son gouvernement n’a pas su enrayer la reprise du commerce à grande échelle de l’opium.

Sous-jacent au trafic d’opium, se tapit une menace d’une autre nature sur la sécurité. C’est une menace à laquelle on ne prête pas suffisamment d’attention depuis le renversement du régime des talibans par les USA en 2001, bien qu’elle fasse courir de grands risques à la stabilité à long terme de l’Afghanistan et de toute la région.

Dans un pays tel que l’Afghanistan où 80% de la population vit de ce qu’elle cultive et dans lequel beaucoup de gens sont loin de toute source d’eau, la dégradation de l’environnement peut être lourde de conséquences, tant sur le plan économique que politique. C’est un élément que les stratèges américains auraient dû prendre en compte bien avant la chute des talibans.

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