La angustia consuetudinaria de Afganistán

FARAH, AFGANISTÁN Cuando se enumeran los problemas que aquejan a la sociedad afgana --violencia, inseguridad, corrupción, fundamentalismo religioso-- se suele excluir un factor dominante: la influencia del derecho consuetudinario. En Afganistán hay tres referencias jurídicas principales: el derecho constitucional, el Corán y el sistema de derecho consuetudinario conocido como Farhang, cuya versión más dominante y estricta se denomina Pashtunwali (las costumbres de los pashtunes).

El Farhang, que en sus orígenes fue un código de honor, asegura la dominación del varón de mayor edad de un hogar, seguido por sus hijos casados, sus hijos solteros y sus nietos y después por sus esposas (la menor de ellas, hasta abajo de la jerarquía). Las decisiones colectivas las toman los patriarcas en consejos llamados jirgas, en los que todos deben estar de acuerdo.

Esas decisiones incluyen colaborar o no con los talibanes o con las fuerzas de la coalición, o aceptar o rechazar la erradicación de la amapola en algún pueblo. Todo lo demás queda a discreción del patriarca. Aquí, nadie interviene salvo para reforzar la aplicación de los derechos del patriarca --por ejemplo, lapidar a alguna joven descarriada o hacerse de la vista gorda ante los llamados "homicidios de honor" de mujeres.

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