La détresse coutumière de l’Afghanistan

FARAH, AFGHANISTANDans la longue liste des problèmes qui rongent l’Afghanistan – violence, insécurité, corruption, fondamentalisme religieux – un facteur est souvent oublié : l’influence des lois coutumières. Il y a trois principales références juridiques en Afghanistan : la loi constitutionnelle, le Coran et le système du droit coutumier appelé Farhang, la version dominante et la plus stricte du Pashtunwali (la manière des Pashtouns.)

A l’origine un ancien code d’honneur, le Farhang garantit la dominance de l’homme le plus agé, suivi par celle des garçons mariés, puis des garçons non mariés, des petits enfants mâles et enfin les épouses (la plus jeune en dernier). Les décisions collectives sont prises par les patriarches en conseils appelés jirgas, dans le cadre desquels tous doivent être en accord.

Cet accord comprend une collaboration éventuelle avec les talibans, une collaboration avec les forces de la Coalition, l’acceptation ou le refus d’éradiquer la culture du pavot dans le village. Tout le reste est laissé à la discrétion du patriarche. Ici, personne n’interviendra excepté pour appliquer les droits patriarcaux comme par exemple la lapidation d’une jeune fille supposée volage ou fermer les yeux devant les meurtres de femmes pour soi-disant «laver l’honneur ».

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