Wealthy man and woman in fashionable urban area.

Le Fascisme des nantis

BERLIN – Des deux côtés de l’Atlantique, on assiste à un inquiétant glissement politique vers la droite, indissociable de l’influence croissante exercée par des partis politiques nationalistes et par des figures de la vie publique ouvertement chauvines : un Donald Trump aux États-Unis, une Marine Le Pen en France. Mais d’autres noms peuvent s’ajouter à la liste : celui du Premier ministre hongrois, qui prône une « démocratie non libérale » ou encore de Jaroslaw Kaczinsky et de son parti quasi autoritaire, Droit et justice, qui gouverne désormais la Pologne.

La progression des partis politiques nationalistes et xénophobes dans de nombreux pays de l’Union européenne s’est produite bien avant l’arrivée des premiers groupes de réfugiés syriens. Ce furent, aux Pays-Bas, Geert Wilders et son Parti pour la liberté ; en Belgique, le Vlaams Blok (désormais rebaptisé Vlaams Belang) ; le Parti autrichien de la liberté (FPÖ) ; les Démocrates de Suède (SD) ; les Vrais Finlandais ou encore le Parti du peuple danois (DF), pour n’en nommer que quelques-uns.

Les raisons de la montée et du succès de ces partis varient sensiblement au niveau national. Mais pour l’essentiel, leurs positions sont à peu près les mêmes. Tous s’en prennent au « système », aux « élites politiques » et à l’Union européenne. Mais ils ne sont pas seulement xénophobes (et plus particulièrement islamophobes), ils adoptent, avec plus ou moins de scrupules, une définition ethnique de la nation. La communauté politique n’est pas produite, à leurs yeux, par la volonté des citoyens défendant l’ordre constitutionnel et juridique commun ; au contraire, l’appartenance à la nation est dictée, comme dans les années trente, par l’origine et la religion.

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