Wealthy man and woman in fashionable urban area.

Het fascisme van de rijken

BERLIJN – Aan weerszijden van de Atlantische Oceaan vindt een alarmerende ruk naar rechts plaats, die verband houdt met de toenemende kracht van openlijk chauvinistische politieke partijen en figuren: Donald Trump in de Verenigde Staten en Marine Le Pen in Frankrijk. Andere namen die aan deze lijst kunnen worden toegevoegd zijn die van de Hongaarse premier, Victor Órban, die een “illiberale democratie” bepleit, en die van Jarosław Kaczyński en zijn quasi-autoritaire Partij van Recht en Rechtvaardigheid, die nu in Polen regeert.

In veel lidstaten van de Europese Unie waren al nationalistische, xenofobe politieke partijen in opkomst lang vóórdat het aantal Syrische vluchtelingen merkbaar omhoog ging. Je had Geert Wilders in Nederland, het Vlaams Blok (opgevolgd door het huidigeVlaams Belang) in België, de Oostenrijkse Vrijheidspartij, de Zweedse Democraten, de Finse Partij, en de Deense Volkspartij, om er maar een paar te noemen.

Op nationaal niveau verschillen de redenen voor de opkomst en het succes van dergelijke partijen enorm. Maar hun fundamentele uitgangspunten lijken op elkaar. Ze gaan allemaal tekeer tegen het “systeem,” het “politieke establishment,” en de EU. Erger nog, ze zijn niet alleen xenofoob (en in het bijzonder islamofoob); ze omarmen ook min of meer schaamteloos een etnische definitie van de natie. De politieke gemeenschap is geen product van de toewijding van de burgers aan een gemeenschappelijke grondwettelijke en juridische orde; net als in de jaren dertig wordt het lidmaatschap van de natie afhankelijk gemaakt van een gemeenschappelijke afkomst en religie.

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