Zach Gibson/AFP/Getty Images

Politik Beracun Versus Ekonomi yang Lebih Baik

NEW YORK – Hubungan antara politik dan ekonomi berubah. Para politikus negara maju terkunci di dalam konflik-konflik yang aneh, sering kali beracun, dan tidak bertindak berdasarkan konsesnsus ekonomi yang berkembang mengenai bagaimana keluar dari periode yang berlarut-larut ini, yang berkaitan dengan pertumbuhan yang rendah dan tidak seimbang. Tren ini harus diputarbalikkan, sebelum melumpuhkan dunia yang sudah maju secara struktural dan menghapus ekonomi yang sedang berkembang juga.

Jelas, pertengkaran politik bukanlah sesuatu yang baru. Sampai baru-baru ini, ada harapan bahwa jika para ahli ekonomi profesional mencapai konsensus teknokratik mengenai pendekatan politik yang baik, maka para pemimpin politik akan mendengarkan. Bahkan saat partai-partai politik yang lebih radikal berusaha untuk mendorong agenda yang berbeda, kekuatan-kekuatan besar – baik itu bujukan moral dari para pemerintah G7, pasar modal swasta, atau secara bersyarat bergantung pada pinjaman International Monetary Fund dan World Bank– hampir selalu pasti terlihat bahwa pendekatan konsensus akhirnya selalu unggul.

Pada tahun 1990an dan 2000an, sebagai contoh, apa yang dikenal sebagai Konsensus Washington mendominasi pembuatan keputusan di sebagian besar dunia, dan semua orang dari Amerika Serikat sampai ke gelombang besar ekonomi yang sedang berkembang yang menginginkan kebebasan perdagangan, swastanisasi, penggunaan mekanisme harga yang lebih besar, deregulasi sektor keuangan, dan reformasi fiskal dan moneter dengan penekanan yang besar pada sisi pasokan. Pelaksanaan Konsensus Washington oleh berbagai institusi multilateral memperbesar penyebarannya, membantu meningkatkan proses globalisasi ekonomi dan keuangan yang lebih besar.

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