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有害的政治学和更好的经济学

纽约—政治学和经济学之间的关系在变化。发达国家政客陷于古怪并且常常有害的冲突之中,而没有在关于如何摆脱长期不平等低增长时期的问题上按照日益一致的经济共识行事。这一趋势必须扭转,否则它将破坏发达经济的结构,并让新兴经济体也陷入困境。

显然,政治内斗不是什么新鲜事。但是,直到最近,人们一直认为,如果职业经济学家能就给定的政策方针形成技术官僚一致,政治领导人是能够听进去的。即使有更多激进政党试图推行不同的日程,但强大的力量——不管是来自G7政府的到的劝告、私人资本市场,还是国际货币基金组织(IMF)和世界银行贷款的附加条件——几乎总能确保共识方针最终能够胜出。

比如,从20世纪90年代到21世纪初,所谓的华盛顿共识主导着世界大部的政策决定,从美国到诸多新兴经济体,所有人都在追求贸易自由化、私有化、扩大价格机制用途、金融业去监管,以及着重强调供给侧的财政和货币改革。多边机构采用华盛顿共识放大的这一传导机制,推动了更广大的经济和金融全球化过程。

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