O clique de rato que pariu uma montanha

CAMBRIDGE – Até há pouco tempo, a segurança cibernética importava sobretudo aos génios dos computadores e aos interessados em intriga e secretismo. Os criadores da Internet, parte de uma pequena comunidade fechada, aceitavam perfeitamente um sistema aberto no qual a segurança não era uma preocupação primordial. No entanto, actualmente, a existência de cerca de mais de três mil milhões de utilizadores na Web transformou essa abertura numa vulnerabilidade grave; na verdade, está a pôr em risco as enormes oportunidades a nível económico que a Internet abriu ao mundo.

Um "ataque cibernético" pode assumir várias formas, incluindo simples pesquisas, desfiguração de sítios web, ataques de recusa de serviço, espionagem e destruição de dados. E o termo "guerra cibernética", cuja melhor definição é toda a acção hostil levada a cabo no ciberespaço que amplie ou seja equivalente a grande violência física, continua a ser igualmente versátil, mostrando definições de "guerra" que vão desde o conflito armado a qualquer esforço para resolver um problema (como por exemplo, "a guerra contra a pobreza").

A guerra e a espionagem cibernéticas estão em grande medida associadas aos Estados, enquanto o cibercrime e o ciberterrorismo estão geralmente associados a intervenientes não estatais. Actualmente, os custos mais avultados decorrem da espionagem e do crime; contudo, na próxima década, a dimensão da ameaça da guerra e do terrorismo cibernéticos poderá tornar-se maior do que se afigura actualmente. Além disso, com a evolução das alianças e das tácticas, as categorias poderão sobrepor-se de forma crescente. Os terroristas poderão comprar software malicioso a criminosos e os governos poderão considerar útil esconder-se atrás de ambos.

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