咆哮的鼠标

美国剑桥—直到最近,关注网络安全的还大多是电脑极客和阴谋论者。互联网的创造者——他们属于一个封闭的小圈子——对安全并非主要顾虑的开放系统感到十分满意。但是,如今有三十亿网络使用者,这一开放性成了严重的弱点;事实上,这个弱点正在威胁到互联网为世界打开的广袤的经济机会海洋。

 “网络攻击”可以以数不清的形式出现,包括简单的侵入、涂鸦网站、拒绝服务攻击、间谍活动和毁坏数据。“网络战”一词也是千变万化——尽管最好的定义是放大或等同于重大实体侵犯的网络空间上的敌对行动——可以反映从武装冲突到齐心协力解决问题(比如“减贫战”)在内的一系列“战”的定义。

网络战和网络间谍大多与国家有关,与此同时,网络犯罪和网络恐怖主义往往由非国家行动者发出。目前,最大的成本来自间谍和犯罪;但是,在未来十年中,网络战和网络恐怖主义有可能成为比今天更大的威胁。此外,同盟和战术的演化,分类也可能日渐重叠。恐怖主义可以从犯罪分子那里买来恶意软件,政府可能会在背后指使。

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