Только бедные умирают молодыми

РОТТЕРДАМ – Люди, которые находятся ниже на социально-экономической лестнице (что определяется их уровнем образования, профессией или доходом), проживают, в среднем, более короткие и менее здоровые жизни, по сравнению с теми, кто находится на высших ступенях. Действительно, ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении обычно отличается на 5-10 лет, в зависимости от социального и экономического благополучия, тогда как более бедные люди проводят на 10-20 лет больше, страдая от болезней или инвалидности, по сравнению с более богатыми.

В девятнадцатом веке такое положение вещей не было бы удивительным, учитывая низкий уровень доходов, массовую нищету и отсутствие социального обеспечения. Но такие данные сегодня обычно сообщаются по странам с высоким доходом, включая те, которые имеют высокие показатели экономического благосостояния и человеческого развития – даже высокоразвитые процветающие государства Западной Европы.

С конца второй мировой войны страны Западной Европы старались сократить социально-экономическое неравенство или компенсировать его последствия посредством прогрессивного налогообложения, программ социального обеспечения, а также широкого спектра коллективно финансируемых услуг, таких как государственное жилье, образование, здравоохранение и культурные и развлекательные мероприятия. Но несмотря на то, что эти меры сокращали неравенство по отдельным социально-экономическим показателям, включая уровень доходов, качество жилья и доступность медицинских услуг, их оказалось недостаточно, чтобы устранить неравенство в отношении здоровья.

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