Renminbi. Chinese currency.

انهيار حقوق السحب الخاصة

سانتا باربارا ــ يبدو أن حملة الحكومة الصينية لإدراج عملتها، الرنمينبي، في الأصل الاحتياطي لدى صندوق النقد الدولي قد أوشكت على النجاح. ففي الأسبوع المنصرم أوصى خبراء صندوق النقد الدولي رسميا بإضافة الرنمينبي إلى سلة العملات التي تحدد قيمة ما يسمى بحقوق السحب الخاصة.

وتُعد إضافة الرنمينبي لسلة العملات، التي يدخل فيها الدولار الأمريكي واليورو والجنيه الإسترليني والين الياباني، دفعا لدعم مكانة الصين، والأكثر أهمية، هو أن هذا الإجراء من شأنه تعزيز جهود الحكومة الصينية الرامية إلى تدويل الرنمينبي. ولكن قد يكون هذا قرارا خاطئا أيضا. فالقرار الذي يوصي بإدراج الرنمينبي، والذي لم يتم اتخاذه على أسس اقتصادية سليمة، لا يمكن فهمه إلا باعتباره قرارا سياسيا. وهذا يعني أن العواقب الطويلة الأجل من المرجح أن تكون مؤسفة.

فمن الناحية الفنية الصرف، لا يملك الرنمينبي ما يؤهله للإدراج في سلة حقوق السحب الخاصة. وقد كان صندوق النقد الدولي تقليديا يصر على معيارين في هذا الصدد: ضرورة أن تكون الدولة المصدرة للعملة من بين كبار المصدرين في العالم، وأن تكون العمل "سهلة الاستخدام" – أي مستخدمة ومتداولة على نطاق واسع.

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