所有人的跨大西洋贸易

华盛顿—欧盟和美国之间关于成立跨大西洋贸易和投资合作伙伴(TTIP)的谈判受到了广泛的欢迎。英国首相卡梅伦将TTIP称为“一代人只有一次的机会”,认为它将给欧盟和美国各带来800亿英镑的潜在收益,给世界其他地区带来850亿英镑的潜在收益。

对于一个等待世贸组织冗长的多哈回合最后结果已经不耐烦的世界来说,即使是双边计划也像是天降恩惠,特别是在《金融时报》最近所指出的“双边”关系包括了世界经济半壁江山的当下。但风险也是巨大的:TTIP协议可能伤害发展中国家的出口,除非欧盟和美国携手保护这些行动方的利益。

计划中的契约引起最多兴奋情绪的部分——其对强制性产品标准等监管壁垒的强调——实际上最应该引起关注。欧盟和美国关税很低——平均不到5%——因此进一步的优惠降税并不会严重影响其他国家。但是,在标准问题上——比如涉及安全、健康和环境的标准——市场准入标准是严酷且二分的:要么满足规定的标准,要么别来这里卖东西。

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