Una salida para el pantano del Tíbet

NUEVA YORK – China ha sobrevivido al 50 aniversario del fallido levantamiento de los tibetanos contra el régimen chino en 1959 sin protestas importantes. Pero, para mantener a los tibetanos fuera de las calles, el gobierno de China tuvo que saturar de tropas toda la meseta tibetana y detener secretamente, en celdas no identificadas, a cientos de personas para "educación legal". Estas medidas sugieran que el Tíbet se ha convertido en una preocupación cada vez más seria para los gobernantes chinos -una preocupación para la que todavía no han encontrado solución, sin perjudicar su posición en el Tíbet y en todo el mundo.

Hace un año, intelectuales chinos y occidentales compitieron a la hora de minimizar el interés popular por el Tíbet como una confusión infantil con el Shangri-la imaginario de la película Horizontes perdidos de 1937. Pero después de más de 150 protestas en el Tíbet contra el régimen chino en los últimos 12 meses, las preocupaciones sobre la zona parecen cualquier cosa menos fantasiosas. De hecho, el Tíbet pronto podría reemplazar a Taiwán como un factor en la estabilidad regional y una cuestión importante en las relaciones internacionales. Las zonas pobladas por tibetanos abarcan una cuarta parte de China; tener una porción tan importante del territorio del país bajo ocupación militar y separada del mundo exterior debilita las aspiraciones del Partido Comunista a la legitimidad y a un estado de poder mundial.

Las protestas del año pasado fueron las más grandes y más propagadas en el Tíbet en décadas. En ellas participaron nómadas, agricultores y estudiantes, quienes en teoría deberían haber sido los más agradecidos a China por modernizar la economía del Tíbet. Muchos portaban la bandera nacional tibetana prohibida, sugiriendo que consideran al Tíbet un país separado en el pasado, y en unos 20 incidentes fueron incendiadas oficinas del gobierno. En un caso, se registraron incluso ataques contra inmigrantes chinos, que terminaron en 18 muertes. Es difícil no ver estos acontecimientos como un desafío al régimen de China.

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