Всеобщая революция

НЬЮ-ЙОРК. Самым важным вкладом Всеобщей декларации прав человека, принятой на Генеральной Ассамблее ОНН 60 дней назад 10 декабря 1948 года, стало утверждение мощной идеи: права являются всеобщими. Права не зависят от принадлежности к определенному обществу или гражданской принадлежности. Они не зависят от общественного договора.

Скорее, поскольку права являются универсальными, они принадлежат каждому человеку. Они являются частью того, что делает нас людьми. Каждый из нас должен иметь возможность пользоваться правами. Тот, кто осуществляет полномочия, может делать это только в ограниченной степени. Ограничения определяются правами.

Конечно, следы концепции всеобщих прав можно проследить уже в семнадцатом веке в трудах английских мыслителей о естественном праве. Эта концепция была частично включена во Французскую декларацию прав 1789 года, а также в большей степени в речь Томаса Джефферсона в ту же эпоху о «неотъемлемых правах». Это также повлияло на ход мыслей тех в Англии, кто вел борьбу против рабства во второй половине восемнадцатого века, первом движении в защиту прав человека.

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