普世革命

    纽约--联合国大会在六十年前,也就是1948年12月10日通过了世界人权宣言。这一文件最为重要的贡献就是宣告了一个强有力的观点,那就是人权是普世的。人权并不取决于某一特别社区或者某一国家的国籍。人权并不来源于社会契约。

    由于人权是普世的,因此就是人类的特征。确实,人权是我们之所以为人的原因。我们每个人都可以享有人权。那些行使权力的人有所顾忌,而正是人权设定了这些顾忌和限制。

    当然,人们可以把普世人权的概念最早追溯到十七世纪英国自然法思想。1789年的法国人权宣言部分地包含了这一概念。杰菲逊在同一时代有关“不可分离的权利”的语言在更大程度上体现了这一观点。这一观点也造就了英国十八世纪后期反对奴隶制斗争领导人的思维,而这一斗争成为第一场人权运动。

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