Un tournant pour la Constitution européenne

Durant ces dernières semaines, la guerre en Irak et les divisions intra-européennes qu'elle a mis en évidence ont retenu l'attention du monde. Au même moment et peut-être pour cela, la Convention sur l'avenir de l'Europe qui prépare la Constitution de l'Union a accompli un pas en avant considérable.

Les représentants de 16 pays (l'Autriche, l'Irlande, le Portugal, les trois pays scandinaves et les 10 pays qui doivent rejoindre l'Union en mai 2004) ont présenté une proposition qui appelle à préserver le délicat équilibre institutionnel de l'UE. Ils recommandent de conserver la Commission européenne en temps que première branche de l'exécutif, le Conseil de l'Europe pour l'expression des intérêts nationaux et le Parlement européen comme lieu de représentation directe des citoyens de l'Union. Ils réaffirment l'égalité des Etats membres en défendant le principe de la présidence tournante du Conseil.

Mais la proposition ne se contente pas d'éviter des changements destructeurs, elle suggère une méthode qui permettrait à la Convention de progresser. Elle recommande de renforcer la légitimité démocratique de la Commission en réformant le mode de sélection de son président. Il serait élu par le Parlement ou par un collège qui inclurait les représentants des Parlements nationaux.

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