Chris Van Es

Una estrategia de seguridad para el siglo XXI

MADRID – “Repetidamente en la historia de nuestra nación, los americanos han afrontado momentos de transición y le han sabido dar forma. Este debe ser uno de esos momentos”. Con esa frase arrancaba la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional estadounidense presentada el pasado 27 de mayo ante el Congreso. Coherente con la política que hemos observado en estos dieciséis meses de mandato –diálogo, compromiso internacional, no proliferación nuclear y desarme– la fuerza del documento estriba en su posicionamiento. La Estrategia de Seguridad rompe claramente con la de su predecesor  y ofrece una concepción amplia de lo que significa para el Presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, la seguridad nacional.

Frente a los grandes retos de nuestro tiempo,  Obama se ha posicionado con una doctrina integral. La estrategia de seguridad es casi una Estrategia “Nacional”. Su línea de acción supera el paradigma hegemónico y unilateral de su predecesor y apuesta por la defensa del derecho internacional. El hecho resulta especialmente destacable si recordamos que durante la presidencia de George W. Bush, EEUU no ha firmado ninguno de los grandes tratados.

El enfoque en seguridad amplía sus miras y propone las tres des—diplomacia, defensa y desarrollo—como partes indisolubles de un todo. La dimensión militar de las intervenciones en el extranjero pierde su papel privilegiado y da cabida a la prevención de conflictos, a las operaciones de mantenimiento de paz y a la estabilización. En la lucha antiterrorista, se abandona la visión predominantemente militar que subyacía en la guerra contra el terror y abraza una visión que centra el foco en el papel de los servicios de inteligencia. Por primera vez, se menciona con precisión a las personas susceptibles de representar una amenaza para la seguridad estadounidense. Estados Unidos no está en una guerra global contra el terrorismo o una religión, sino en  una “guerra con una red específica, Al Qaeda, y sus terroristas afiliados”. En esa guerra son singularmente necesarios los recursos de información.

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