Un nuevo orden de seguridad nuclear posteuro-atlántico

WASHINGTON, DC – A medida que se aproxima el 2011, la región euroatlántica se convierte en un ejemplo de contrastes estratégicos. En los últimos veinte años, no ha habido un espacio geopolítico que haya experimentado una transformación tan profunda como la del Atlántico y los Urales. En nuestros tiempos, hemos visto un cambio positivo de los peores días de la Guerra Fría, cuando una guerra convencional y nuclear de características devastadoras era una posibilidad real en Europa, a una nueva era en la que ningún Estado se enfrenta a este tipo de amenaza existencial.

Sin embargo, a pesar de estos eventos positivos, cada una de las dos potencias más grandes de la región –los Estados Unidos y Rusia- aún posee miles de armas nucleares, que representan más del 90% del inventario nuclear mundial. Muchas de estas armas siguen estando desplegadas o diseñadas para ser utilizadas en la región euroatlántica.

La reducción y eliminación de esta infraestructura nuclear de los tiempos de la Guerra Fría es uno de los asuntos más importantes que quedan sin resolver de esa era pasada. La existencia continua de grandes fuerzas nucleares estratégicas que están desplegadas en alerta máxima y de armas nucleares tácticas que están desplegadas en ciertos países de la OTAN y en Rusia crea un riesgo de uso accidental, equivocado o no autorizado y de adquisición de estos activos por parte de los grupos terroristas. Por consiguiente, la vigilancia de la seguridad es esencial.

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