Un ordre de sécurité euro-atlantique post-nucléaire

BERLIN/MOSCOU/MÜNICH/WASHINGTON, D.C. – A l’orée du XXIe siècle, la région euro-atlantique est caractérisée par des contrastes stratégiques. Au cours des 20 dernières années, aucun espace géopolitique n’a connu de transformation aussi radicale que celui compris antre l’Oural et l’Océan atlantique. Nous avons vu, au cours de notre vie, le passage bienvenu des jours les plus sombres de la Guerre froide, quand une guerre conventionnelle et nucléaire en Europe était une réelle possibilité, à une nouvelle ère dans laquelle aucun État n’est plus confronté à ce genre de menace existentielle.

Mais malgré ces évolutions positives, les deux principales puissances de la région – les Etats-Unis et la Russie – possèdent encore chacune des milliers d’armes nucléaires, représentant plus de 90 pour cent de l’arsenal nucléaire mondial. Une grande partie de ces armes restent déployées ou sont destinées à servir dans la région euro-atlantique.

La réduction et l’élimination des infrastructures nucléaires de la Guerre froide est la principale tâche inachevée de cette époque révolue. La persistance de forces nucléaires stratégiques importantes déployées en état d’alerte élevé et d’armements nucléaires tactiques déployés dans certains pays de l’Otan et en Russie pose le risque d’une utilisation accidentelle, non autorisée ou par erreur, ainsi que le risque de voir des groupes terroristes s’emparer d’armes nucléaires. La sécurité et la vigilance sont donc essentielles.

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