Paul Lachine

Une nouvelle architecture du monde

NEW YORK – Vingt après la chute du mur de Berlin et la chute du communisme, le monde doit choisir entre deux formes fondamentalement différentes d’organisation : un capitalisme international et un capitalisme d’état. Le premier, représenté par les Etats-Unis, est en miettes et le second, représenté par la Chine, en est à ses premiers balbutiements. Suivre le chemin de moindre résistance entrainera la désintégration progressive du système financier international. Il faut inventer un système multilatéral basé sur des principes plus sûrs.

Il est difficile de parvenir à une coopération internationale sur les réformes de régulation à partir d’une base fragmentée. Mais il est possible d’y parvenir si l’on procède à une réorganisation totale de l’ordre financier dans son ensemble. Il faudrait un nouveau Bretton Woods (conférence qui permit d’établir une nouvelle architecture financière mondiale à la suite de la seconde guerre mondiale) afin d’établir de nouvelles règles internationales, y compris pour les institutions financières qui sont trop importantes pour faillir et le rôle des contrôles de capitaux. Cette conférence devra aussi réfléchir à la refondation du Fond Monétaire International afin qu’il reflète mieux la nouvelle hiérarchie des pays et pour revoir ses méthodes opérationnelles.

De plus, un nouveau Bretton Woods devra réformer le système monétaire. L’ordre qui a prévalu au lendemain de la seconde guerre mondiale et qui permit à l’Amérique d’être plus égal que d’autres, a produit de nombreux déséquilibres. Le dollar ne jouit plus de la même confiance qu’à une certaine époque mais aucune monnaie ne peut prendre sa place.

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