美国的拉丁美洲新议程

墨西哥城-对下一任美国总统来说,处理布什政府遗留下来的国际混乱状态不是一个简单的任务。虽然拉丁美洲对不管是奥巴马政府还是麦凯恩政府来说,都不是首要任务,但是,美国政府继续过去七年来对拉丁美洲的忽略态度不再可行了。

拉丁美洲有两个明显的政治/外交挑战突显出来:古巴即将到来的转变或继承危机,该地区“两种左派”力量的持续上升,其中一种是由委内瑞拉总统雨果·查韦斯代表的左派,另一种是由巴西影响力不断增强的总统卢拉·达席尔瓦所代表的左派。如果下一届美国政府领会到拉丁美洲正在经历一个结合了其历史上最好和最坏的方面的时刻:20世纪70年代以来最快的经济增长速度,贫困和不平等在逐渐减少,比以前任何时候都更民主和尊重人权,但是也在政治上变得更两极化了,它一定会成功。

在古巴,菲德尔·卡斯特罗最终从历史舞台上的消失代表着一个巨大的挑战。美国不能再继续过去半个世纪失败的政策。美国要求以完全的民主转变作为美国和古巴关系正常化的前提,对拉丁美洲来说是既不切实际又不受欢迎的。然而,在其等待着菲德尔的弟弟劳尔继续统治的时候,美国不可能将古巴的民主和人权问题置之不理。

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