Uma Nova Solução de Estado para Israel e Palestina

PRINCETON – Imaginemos uma solução a dois estados em Israel e Palestina em que os Palestinianos tivessem o direito de regresso; os Israelitas pudessem estabelecer-se em qualquer sítio na Cisjordânia onde pudessem adquirir terra; e Jerusalém não precisasse de ser dividida. Esta não é uma visão fantasiosa, antes uma reinvenção criativa e eminentemente sensata do estadismo do século vinte e um. E a recém-completada visita a Israel do Presidente dos EUA, Barack Obama, dá-nos uma oportunidade para explorar um pensamento genuinamente novo.

Desde que Bill Clinton foi quase bem-sucedido na mediação de um acordo geral em 2000, o mantra entre os apoiantes do processo de paz Israelo-Palestiniano tem sido que, embora exista uma solução, os líderes Israelitas e Palestinianos que a poderiam atingir não o fazem. A solução é uma versão do acordo que Clinton procurava: dois estados soberanos baseados nas fronteiras de 1967, com trocas negociadas de terrenos que reflectissem os colonatos existentes. O acordo incluiria um corredor terrestre ligando Gaza à Cisjordânia; uma Jerusalém dividida com acesso universal garantido aos locais religiosos; a renúncia Palestiniana do direito de regresso; a disponibilidade de Israel para desmantelar colonatos fora das fronteiras acordadas; e o reconhecimento de ambos os estados por todo o Médio Oriente.

Mas suponhamos que a razão para o facto de não ter emergido qualquer Palestiniano ou Israelita disponível para concluir um tal acordo seja que a própria solução é insuportável para ambos os lados. Suponhamos que enquanto uma versão deste acordo for a única opção disponível, a contínua expansão física do estado Israelita e a expansão demográfica dos Árabes Israelitas continuarão a desgastar os seus alicerces. Se há tantos sinais de que a janela de uma solução a dois estados se fecha rapidamente (ou que já fechou), é porque o problema é a própria solução.

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