Le condominialisme à deux Etats, la solution au conflit israélo-palestinien ?

PRINCETON – Imaginez une solution à deux Etats au conflit israélo-palestinien qui mettrait fin à la division de Jérusalem, accorderait aux Palestiniens le droit au retour et aux Israéliens celui de s'établir où ils veulent en Cisjordanie s'ils y achètent des terres. Il ne s'agit pas d'un projet chimérique, mais de la réinvention créatrice et adéquate de la notion d'Etat au 21° siècle. La visite que vient d'achever le président Obama en Israël est l'occasion d'explorer cette nouvelle forme de pensée.

Depuis que Bill Clinton a failli parvenir à un accord global en 2000, le mantra des partisans d'un processus de paix israélo-palestinien est qu'une solution existe, mais que les dirigeants israéliens et palestiniens n'en veulent pas. La solution repose sur un aménagement de l'accord recherché par Clinton : deux Etats souverains basés sur les frontières de 1967 avec des échanges de terre négociés pour prendre en compte les colonies de peuplement existantes. L'accord inclurait un corridor reliant Gaza et la Cisjordanie, la partition de Jérusalem, mais avec l'accès garanti à tous aux sites religieux, la renonciation des Palestiniens au droit au retour dans l'Etat juif, la volonté israélienne de démanteler les colonies établies hors des frontières convenues et la reconnaissance des deux Etats par tous les pays du Moyen-Orient.

Supposons qu'aucun Palestinien et aucun Israélien ne veuille de cet accord parce qu'il est inacceptable des deux cotés, et que même si cet accord est le seul envisagé, l'expansion rampante du territoire israélien et l'expansion démographique des Arabes israéliens continuera à saper ses fondations. Quoi qu'il en soit des sombres avertissements relatifs à la fermeture prochaine (si ce n'est déjà fait) de la fenêtre permettant la mise en œuvre de la solution à deux Etats, cette solution elle-même constitue un problème.

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