Un nuevo arranque para la no proliferación

VIENA – El presidente norteamericano, Barack Obama, le inyectó un nuevo dinamismo a los esfuerzos -paralizados durante una década- por llevar a cabo el desarme nuclear. Está comprometido con la visión de un mundo libre de armas nucleares y reconoce el vínculo entre la no proliferación y el desarme nuclear por parte de los estados con armas nucleares.

Obama ha prometido revitalizar el Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear (TNP) de 1970, que apunta a impedir la propagación de armas nucleares. El régimen de no proliferación, cuya piedra angular es el TNP, es confuso. Los principales problemas son fácilmente identificables.

En primer lugar, los cinco principales estados con armas nucleares no han tomado en serio su obligación según el TNP de trabajar para el desarme nuclear. En cambio, han insistido en que las armas nucleares son esenciales para su seguridad y siguieron modernizando sus arsenales nucleares. Esto naturalmente los priva de autoridad moral para persuadir a otros de no adquirir armas nucleares, lo que se sigue percibiendo como una fuente de poder e influencia, y una póliza de seguro contra un ataque.

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