Nouveau départ pour la non-prolifération

VIENNE – Le président Barack Obama a donné une nouvelle impulsion aux tentatives de désarmement nucléaire qui étaient au point mort depuis une dizaine d’années. Il a embrassé la vision d’un monde sans armes nucléaires et reconnu le lien entre non-prolifération et désarmement par les Etats dotés de l’arme nucléaire.

Obama s’est engagé à revitaliser un régime vacillant de non-prolifération, dont le Traité de non‑prolifération (TNP) des armes nucléaires de 1970 est la pierre angulaire. Il n’est pas difficile d’identifier les problèmes majeurs.

Premièrement, les cinq grands Etats nucléaires n’ont pas pris au sérieux l’obligation de mesures de désarmement souscrite avec le TNP. Au lieu de cela, ils mettent en avant le fait que les armes nucléaires sont essentielles à leur sécurité et poursuivent la modernisation de leurs arsenaux nucléaires – ce qui les prive naturellement de l’autorité morale de convaincre les autres pays de ne pas acquérir d’armes nucléaires, toujours perçues comme source de pouvoir et d’influence, et comme police d’assurance contre d’éventuelles attaques.

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