Новый путь к экономике с низкими выбросами углекислого газа

НЬЮ-ЙОРК. Ключ к борьбе с антропогенным изменением климата заключается в переходе к таким типам производства электроэнергии, в результате которых, в отличие от сжигания нефти, природного газа и каменного угля, выбросы углекислого газа (главного «парникового» газа, ответственного за глобальное потепление) станут либо незначительными, либо исчезнут вовсе. Производство электроэнергии с низкими объёмами выбросов углекислого газа может быть основано на солнечной, ядерной и ветряной энергии, или же на использовании электростанций на твёрдом топливе, захватывающих выбросы CO2 и хранящих его.

Политическая проблема проста. Каменный уголь является более дешёвым и лёгким в использовании источником энергии, чем альтернативные источники. Он дешёвый, потому что его запасы изобильны. Его легче использовать, чем энергию ветра или солнца, потому что с его помощью можно вырабатывать электроэнергию круглые сутки, вне зависимости от погодных условий.

Чтобы спасти планету, необходимо побудить поставщиков электроэнергии использовать источники энергии с низкими выбросами углекислого газа, несмотря на низкую стоимость и простоту использования каменного угля. Очевидный способ – обложить использование каменного угля налогом или обязать электростанции получать разрешения на использование каменного угля и сделать налог или стоимость разрешения достаточно высокими, чтобы побудить переход к альтернативным источникам энергии с низкими выбросами углекислого газа.

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