Una nuova via verso un’economia a basso tenore di carbonio

NEW YORK – La soluzione per il cambiamento climatico prodotto dall’uomo dipende essenzialmente dalla transizione alla produzione di energia elettrica che, a differenza della bruciatura del petrolio, del gas naturale e del carbone, comporta una produzione minima se non nulla di diossido di carbonio, il principale gas serra responsabile del riscaldamento globale. La produzione d’elettricità a basso tenore di carbonio può avvenire tramite energia solare, nucleare ed eolica o attraverso la bruciatura del carbone negli impianti, che permette di catturare ed immagazzinare le emissioni di CO2.

Il problema legato alla politica del cambiamento climatico è relativamente semplice. Il carbone è non solo la risorsa energetica più economica grazie alla sua abbondante riserva, ma è anche il più facile da utilizzare di tutte le energie alternative, in particolar modo rispetto all’energia solare ed eolica, in quanto è in grado di produrre elettricità 24 ore su 24 senza dipendere dalle condizioni atmosferiche.

Per salvare il pianeta dobbiamo spingere i produttori di energia ad adottare fonti di energia a basso tenore di carbonio, sebbene il carbone sia non solo più facilmente utilizzabile ma abbia anche costi molto ridotti. La via più ovvia è quella di mettere un’imposta sul carbone o imporre agli impianti energetici di doversi munire di permessi per l’utilizzo del carbonio e definire una tassa o un permesso abbastanza elevato da indurre lo spostamento verso energie alternative a basso tenore di carbonio.

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