Une nouvelle Sainte Alliance ?

LONDRES -- La récente rencontre au Vatican du “gardien des lieux saints” , le roi Abdallah d’Arabie Saoudite, et du pape Benoît XVI, est un événement majeur, notamment car elle s’est produite alors que les musulmans radicaux réfutent le rôle des “croisés” dans la politique du Moyen-Orient. C’est aussi le signe le plus net de la naissance d’une “sainte alliance” des dirigeants conservateurs du monde. Car le public principal de cette rencontre entre un roi musulman et un pontife catholique n’était pas leurs partisans, mais un autre dirigeant conservateur, le président George W. Bush.

La première Sainte Alliance était une création du prince autrichien Metternich après les guerres napoléoniennes. Elle visait à préserver la paix (et la sécurité de l’empire autrichien relativement fragile) par le biais d’une coalition de vainqueurs partageant les mêmes valeurs.

La Sainte Alliance de Metternich fut la seule idée politique originale à émerger de la défaite de Napoléon. Derrière son appellation exaltante se cache une innovation d’une grande portée diplomatique : l’introduction d’un élément de contrôle moral calculé dans les relations internationales. Les intérêts particuliers que les membres de l’alliance - l’Autriche, la Prusse et la Russie - entretenaient dans la survie de leurs institutions nationales les menèrent tous à chercher à éviter des conflits que, dans le passé, ils auraient poursuivis automatiquement.

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