Un New Deal pour les Etats fragiles

PARIS – Le quart de la population de la planète vit dans des Etats fragiles et/ou dans des zones affectés par des conflits. Malgré d'énormes sommes consacrées depuis 50 ans à aider ces Etats, les conflits armés et la violence continuent à perturber la vie de millions de personnes à travers le monde.

Aussi, les partenaires nationaux et internationaux de ces Etats doivent-ils changer radicalement d'approche. J'ai été aux premières loges pour constater cette nécessité au Sri Lanka après le tsunami dévastateur de décembre 2004. Lors des deux premiers mois qui ont suivi, quelques 50 chefs d'Etat et ministres des Affaires étrangères se sont rendu sur l'île, chacun avec son propre programme, des organisations de son pays et ses équipes de TV. La plupart n'avaient qu'une connaissance superficielle du conflit entre les activistes Tamouls et le gouvernement sri lankais. De grosses erreurs ont été commises qui ont encore attisé la violence.

Le principal défi est maintenant de s'éloigner d'un modèle de coopération dans lequel ce sont les gouvernements ou les organismes des pays donateurs qui déterminent les priorités, les mesures à appliquer et les besoins de financement. Les pays affectés par un conflit devraient être capables de choisir leur propre destinée.

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