Une proposition de réforme pour l'ONU

L'ONU est déchirée par des tensions internes. Aussitôt la controverse sur la création d'un Conseil des droits de l'homme réglée de manière satisfaisante, une nouvelle bataille a éclaté : les USA exigent des réformes administratives et menacent de ne plus participer au financement de l'organisation si elles n'interviennent pas très rapidement.

Le secrétaire général a proposé une réforme qui paraît raisonnable, mais une majorité des pays membres qui agissent de concert, le G 77, y renâclent, estimant que c'est une étape de plus vers l'affaiblissement de l'autorité de l'Assemblée générale par rapport à celle du Conseil de sécurité. Ils critiquent notamment la proposition d'accroître les pouvoirs et la responsabilité du secrétaire général dont la désignation est entre les mains des cinq membres permanents du Conseil de sécurité qui disposent du droit de veto.

Beaucoup de pays membres, estimant que l'Assemblée générale a de moins en moins de pouvoir, ne veulent pas abandonner ce qu'ils considèrent comme sa dernière prérogative : le contrôle du budget exercé par la Cinquième commission de l'Assemblée générale. En pratique, cette commission assure la micro-gestion du personnel et des dépenses qui devrait incomber au secrétaire général si l'on voulait que l'ONU fonctionne correctement, avec un personnel capable de répondre aux défis qui se posent à l'organisation. Telle est la raison de l'insistance américaine en faveur d'une réforme.

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