Una estrategia de desarrollo para África en la que menos sea más

REYKJAVIC – Si los países africanos adoptaran una sola política para intensificar el crecimiento económico y mejorar la estabilidad macroeconómica, deberían reducir lo antes posible el número de divisas en circulación en todo el continente. Lo más probable es que así fomentarían el comercio, como ocurrió en Europa con la llegada del euro, y podrían contener la inflación, cosa que siempre es buena para el crecimiento, imponiendo disciplina internacional en materia de política monetaria.

La Unión Africana se propone ahora juntar todas las divisas del continente en una sola de aquí a 2028. Entretanto, varias uniones monetarias regionales están en fase de proyecto, además de las dos uniones monetarias que ya existen, una de jure y otra de facto.

La primera y más antigua de esas uniones está compuesta por los catorce países que forman parte de la Comunidad Monetaria del África central y la Unión Monetaria y Económica del África Occidental, que usan el franco CFA. La segunda de dichas uniones está compuesta por Lesotho, Namibia. Swazilandia y ahora Zimbabwe, todos los cuales usan el rand sudafricano. Dejando aparte Zimbabwe, converso reciente e incompleto, los dieciocho países de las dos uniones monetarias existentes se han beneficiado, como se trataba de conseguir, de una inflación menor que la de gran parte del resto de África.

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