Pour une ligue des démocraties ?

LONDRES – Le sénateur John McCain, candidat républicain aux présidentielles américaines, appelle à la création d’une « ligue des démocraties ». Ce nouveau groupe international disposera d’une formidable capacité militaire, reposant partiellement sur l’OTAN et sur un « nouveau partenariat de sécurité quadrilatéral » dans le Pacifique entre l'Australie, l'Inde, le Japon et les États-Unis. Comme on peut s'y attendre, ni la Russie ni la Chine ne seront invitées à le rejoindre : en fait, McCain veut exclure la Russie du G8.

Selon McCain, cette ligue est nécessaire puisque dans les questions vitales pour les États‑Unis, comme la lutte contre le terrorisme islamique, l'intervention humanitaire et la diffusion de la liberté, de la démocratie et de l'économie de marché, ils doivent être capables, avec leurs partenaires, d'agir sans la permission des Nations unies – c'est-à-dire de la Russie et de la Chine. En d'autres termes, l’objectif principal de la ligue est de marginaliser ces deux pays des affaires mondiales.

Le plus accablant dans le plan de McCain, c’est qu'il risque de provoquer une nouvelle guerre froide entre les États qualifiés de « démocratie » et ceux qualifiés « d'autocratie ». C’est non seulement dangereux, mais aussi incohérent. En effet, la Russie et la Chine ne « menacent » pas le « monde libre » par une idéologie puissante et des forces massives, comme ce fut le cas durant la Guerre froide. Qui plus est, les démocraties du monde sont même divisées sur la façon de résoudre le problème du terrorisme islamique et du génocide au Darfour : après tout, c'est la France qui a conduit l'opposition du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies à l'invasion américaine de l'Irak.

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