Un poison tenace

NEW YORK – L’an prochain, vingt ans auront passé depuis la chute du communisme européen. Les jeunes qui représentent la génération post-communiste en Europe de l’Est ont évacué la complexité d’un cruel passé, en évitant d’en savoir trop, et ne paraissent pas s’intéresser à ce qu’ont subi leurs parents et leurs grand-parents.

Pourtant, les récentes révélations qui font porter, sur le grand écrivain tchèque Milan Kundera, des soupçons de complicité avec le régime stalinien ne sont qu’une convulsion de plus dans la longue rémanence de ce passé toxique. On pense aux accusations de connivence avec la police secrète dont Lech Walesa a fait l’objet, aux controverses, dans l’opinion publique roumaine, autour du passé fasciste de Mircea Eliade et aux procès fait aux juifs d’un prétendu “monopole de la souffrance”, une incrimination qui met l’holocauste et le goulag soviétique sur le même plan.

A force de fixer le diable trop longtemps dans les yeux, aurait dit Friedrich Nietzsche, on risque de devenir soi-même le diable. L’antibolchevisme, tout aussi dogmatique que le communisme, s’est déchaîné par intermittence, ici et là en Europe de l’Est. Dans un pays puis dans l’autre, cette pensée manichéenne, avec son cortège de simplifications et de manipulations, n’a fait que subir un refaçonnage qui lui a permis de servir le nouveau pouvoir en place.

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