幽灵不散

纽约-明年将迎来共产主义在欧洲垮台20周年。不再需要了解过多残酷过去的东欧后共产主义的年轻一代似乎对他们的父辈和祖辈所承受的一切毫无兴趣。

然而最近披露捷克作家昆德拉可能曾在斯大林主义时代参与共谋的消息只不过是漫长的痛苦过去最新暴露的一个事例。我还想到了其他类似的例子:瓦文萨被指责曾与秘密警察勾结,罗马尼亚的公众激烈争论米尔恰·伊利亚德曾为法西斯效力的过去,还有对所谓“犹太人承受了所有痛苦”的观点的攻击几乎等同于对苏联劳改营内发生的大屠杀的言论的攻击。

尼采曾说过如果你盯着恶魔的眼睛时间太久,你自己也可能成为恶魔。布尔什维克的反共产主义,与对共产主义本身的教条主义相似,在东欧的各个地区一再地肆虐。在一个接一个的国家,这种要么过于简单化要么进行操纵的二元论心态只不过是重新粉饰来为掌权的新一代服务而已。

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