Hundert Jahre Supraleitfähigkeit

CHICAGO – Kürzlich wurde der weltweit erste “Quanten”-Computer – ein Gerät, das die Magie der Quantenphänomene für Speicher- und Prozessorzwecke nutzt, und dies unglaublich viel schneller als die heutigen Computerchips auf Silikonbasis – von der kanadischen Firma D-Wave Systems an Lockheed-Martin verkauft. Als Antwort auf die verbreitete Skepsis, ob es sich wirklich um einen Quantencomputer handelt, haben seine Entwickler Artikel in Fachzeitschriften veröffentlicht, die zeigen, dass die grundlegenden Bestandteile dieses neuartigen Computers tatsächlich supraleitende Quantenbits sind.

In diesem Frühjahr war der hundertste Jahrestag der Entdeckung der Supraleitfähigkeit – der Fähigkeit von Materialien, elektrischen Strom verlustfrei zu leiten. Strom, der sich in supraleitenden Drähten befindet, kann dort jahrelang ohne messbare Verlustleistung fließen.

Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaft besitzen Supraleiter einmalige Fähigkeiten, die auf vielfältige Weise genutzt werden können. Sie können enorme Strommengen leiten, wodurch sie sich ideal für städtische Hochspannungsnetze eignen würden. Und als Spulen gewickelt können sie extrem starke Magnetfelder erzeugen.

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