Des centaines de Weltpolitik

NEW DELHI – On se souvient du fameux appel de Mao Tsé-toung encourageant les Chinois à « permettre à des centaines de fleurs de s’épanouir ». Rapidement, cependant, il avait fait machine arrière devant le chaos d’idées concurrentes. Aujourd’hui, le monde semble entrer dans une période où non pas des centaines, mais au moins des dizaines de Weltpolitik sont poursuivies tant par les grandes puissances que les puissances émergeantes. Réconcilier ces visions stratégiques concurrentes du monde, en particulier dans le cadre de la crise mondiale, compliquera plus que jamais la diplomatie internationale.

L’intervention de la Turquie et du Brésil sur la question extrêmement controversée du programme nucléaire de l’Iran n’est que le dernier signe, mais aussi le plus clair, de ce nouvel élément dans les affaires internationales. En mai, les dirigeants iraniens, turcs et brésiliens se sont réunis à Téhéran pour conclure un accord visant à prévoir le dépôt par l’Iran de 1 200 kilos d’uranium faiblement enrichi en Turquie, laquelle en échange enverrait 120 kilo de matière enrichie pour être utilisé dans le réacteur de recherche iranien.

La Russie avait proposé ce genre d’échange précédemment mais l’Iran avait décliné l’offre et la version de l’accord avec le Brésil et la Turquie était aussi prévue pour éviter que l’Iran ne développe sa capacité à produire de l’uranium hautement enrichi, pouvant être utilisé pour les têtes nucléaires. Mais l’autre intention était aussi surement de contrecarrer les efforts américains pour que soient adoptées de nouvelles sanctions onusiennes contre l’Iran.

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