Une Cour des droits de l'homme pour l'Afrique

Les premiers tribunaux internationaux ont été crées voilà plusieurs décennies et l'expérience montre que si la volonté de départ joue un rôle essentiel, la procédure de mise en oeuvre du projet dès sa phase initiale est tout aussi importante.

Même si l'on en a peu parlé, le 25 janvier 2004 a été un jour historique pour la défense des droits de l'homme en Afrique. C'est le jour de l'entrée en vigueur du Protocole portant création d'une Cour africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples. Après l'Europe et l'Amérique, l'Afrique sera le troisième continent à disposer d'un tribunal régional pour juger des violations des droits de l'homme.

L'année dernière, la ratification du Protocole par des pays africains aussi influents que l'Algérie, l'Afrique du Sud et la Libye a donné le dernier coup de pouce à la création de la Cour. Le seuil des 15 ratifications nécessaires a été atteint peu avant la fin de l'année dernière avec la signature des Comores. Mais c'est vis-à-vis de pays tels que le Burundi, la Côte d'Ivoire, le Rwanda et l'Ouganda, qui ont tous ratifié le Protocole, que la Cour va sans doute jouer un rôle majeur dans la lutte contre les violations des droits de l'homme.

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