Un plan Marshall pour le monde arabe

OXFORD – La flamme des révoltes qui ont gagné l’ensemble du monde arabe il y a deux ans a été attisée par des exigences de liberté, de pain et de justice sociale. Or, si ces révolutions ont renversé des dictateurs et transformé des sociétés, les principales aspirations demeurent plus que jamais insatisfaites. En réalité, les défis économiques auxquels sont confrontés les États du Printemps arabe sont aujourd’hui encore plus pressants, pesant lourdement sur les perspectives politiques de ces pays.

Le taux de chômage a presque doublé en Tunisie et en Égypte, tandis que les investissements directs à l’étranger se sont raréfiés dans l’ensemble du monde arabe. Les recettes du tourisme, bien que solides, sont elles aussi en déclin, et les difficultés budgétaires demeurent considérables. Or, cette urgence économique n’est nullement reflétée dans une quelconque réponse politique, laquelle reste douloureusement lente, voire inexistante.

Le déficit budgétaire de l’Égypte dépassera par exemple 11% du PIB cette année. Pourtant, les dirigeants du pays continuent de se contenter de réfléchir aux dispositions d’un prêt absolument nécessaire de la part du Fonds monétaire international. L’an dernier, la réduction par le gouvernement des subventions aux carburants n’a été suivie d’aucune réforme supplémentaire, et la nécessaire augmentation des impôts a été rapidement retardée après avoir été annoncée par le président Mohamed Morsi.

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