خطة مارشال عربية

أكسفورد ــ كانت موجة الثورات التي اجتاحت العالم العربي قبل عامين مدفوعة بمطالب الحرية، والخبز، والعدالة الاجتماعية. ولكن برغم نجاح هذه الثورات في الإطاحة بحكام مستبدين وتحويل عدد من المجتمعات، فإن هذه الأهداف الأساسية لا تزال بعيدة المنال كأي وقت مضى. بل إن التحديات الاقتصادية التي تواجه دول الربيع العربي أصبحت أكثر إلحاحا، وألقت بظلها الثقيل على الآفاق السياسية لهذه البلدان.

فقد تضاعفت البطالة تقريباً في تونس ومصر، ونضب معين الاستثمار المباشر الأجنبي في مختلف أنحاء العالم العربي. وأصبحت عائدات السياحة في انحدار برغم صمودها، وتظل التحديات المالية كبيرة. غير أن الاستجابات السياسية لا تعكس هذه الحاجة الاقتصادية الملحة، فكانت إما بطيئة إلى حد موجع أو لا وجود لها على الإطلاق.

على سبيل المثال، سوف يتجاوز العجز المالي في مصر 11% من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي هذا العام. ولكن حكام البلاد ظلوا يماطلون بشأن شروط قرض صندوق النقد الدولي الذي تحتاج إليه مصر بشدة. ففي العام الماضي خفضت الحكومة دعم الوقود، ولكنها لم تُتبِع ذلك بتطبيق إصلاحات إضافية، كما أجلت فرض الزيادات الضريبية المطلوبة بعد إعلان الرئيس محمد مرسي عنها بفترة وجيزة.

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