Dean Rohrer

一堂全球公民理念课

发自伊斯坦布尔——众所周知,这是一个全球相互依存的世界。我们已经见证了美国的金融产业如何支配世界其他地区的经济增长;中国的二氧化碳排放怎样影响着越南,孟加拉和马尔代夫等国人民的粮食收成与生活;爆发在墨西哥的流感又如何打乱了美国公众生活的节奏;或者从冰岛喷发出来的火山灰是如何危及全欧洲交通运输的。

我们同时也意识到,如果想通过各自为政的国家来设计和实施那些应对全球问题的方案,其本身就存在着内在的障碍。因此我们会选择两种模式来解除这个困境:第一种包括建立一整套具有创新性的专责联盟和方案。比如说,当全球基本公共卫生机构效率低下之时,我们就成立了全球基金来与肺结核,艾滋病和疟疾作斗争。当互联网覆盖全球之后,其管理权就被移交给“互联网名称与数字地址分配机构(ICANN)”这家非政府非营利的国际组织,将所有个人网络使用者的需求都纳入该组织的管辖之下——这也堪称一个向跨政府多边主义迈进的重大进步。

而美国作为国际体系中最强大的成员,更加倾向于采用这种特事特办的全球治理模式。通过其掌握的庞大资源和联盟体系,该模式能令美国在不受到许多长期规范,惯例和体系的羁绊的情况下,有效地推进其国家利益。

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