Un nouveau départ pour l’Europe en Amérique latine ?

MILAN- A l’horizon 2050, le Brésil et le Mexique figureront parmi les six premières économies mondiales, d’après les analystes de la banque d’investissement Goldman Sachs. L’Europe en est-elle consciente, ou l’Amérique latine sera-t-elle sa prochaine occasion commerciale ratée ?

L’Amérique latine abrite une population de 550 millions de personnes environ, avec un revenu annuel moyen par tête de 4000 dollars, d’immenses ressources naturelles et un capital humain considérable. Le sous-continent représente 8 pour cent de la production mondiale et  a connu une croissance de 5 pour cent par an au cours des trois dernières années. Même si les Etats-Unis restent le principal destinataire des exportations d’Amérique centrale et latine, l’Asie commence à être un marché important pour les biens produits à partir de ressources naturelles.

Au cours des quatre dernières années, l’Amérique latine a attiré en moyenne 61 milliards de dollars par an en investissements étrangers directs, dont 60 pour cent environ ont été investis au Brésil et au Mexique. Dans les années 1990, les investisseurs étaient principalement intéressés par les programmes de privatisation dans la région. Aujourd’hui, les investissements portent surtout sur les fusions et acquisitions et dans de nouvelles infrastructures. L’Espagne est sans surprise le principal investisseur européen en Amérique latine, bien que plusieurs opérations espagnoles d’importance soient récemment passées aux mains de sociétés italiennes, notamment l’entreprise Endesa, acquise par le groupe Italien Enel, qui est aujourd’hui le principal producteur et distributeur privé d’énergie en Amérique latine.

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