A Fair Deal on Climate Change

L'accord sur le réchauffement climatique auquel sont parvenus les dirigeants du G8 à Heiligendamm se limite à préparer le véritable débat qui reste à venir : quelle quantité de gaz à effet de serre allouer à chaque pays, compte tenu de la capacité de plus en plus faible de l'atmosphère à absorber ces gaz ?

Les dirigeants du G8 ont convenu de réduire de manière "substantielle" les émissions de gaz à effet de serre et de prendre "sérieusement en considération" l'objectif d'une diminution de 50% de ces émissions en 2050 - un résultat présenté comme un triomphe par la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel et le Premier ministre britannique Tony Blair. Or cet accord ne comporte aucun engagement précis pour quiconque, et surtout pas pour les USA dont le président actuel ne sera plus au pouvoir en 2009, quant il faudra prendre les décisions difficiles. On peut se demander ce qui peut inciter à considérer comme un progrès un accord aussi vague.

Lors de la conférence de l'ONU sur l'environnement et le développement à Rio de Janeiro en 1992, 189 pays - dont les USA, la Chine, l'Inde et tous les pays européens - ont signé la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur le changement climatique par laquelle ils s'engageaient à stabiliser les émissions de gaz à effet de serre "à un niveau assez bas pour prévenir des interférences anthropogéniques dangereuses avec le système climatique". Quinze ans plus tard, aucun pays n'y est parvenu.

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