Aubaine démocratique pour la Turquie ?

Il se pourrait bien, finalement, que l'apparente tombée en disgrâce de la Turquie aux yeux des États-Unis soit en fait une bénédiction déguisée. La guerre contre l'Irak et les positions diplomatiques tortueuses qui y menèrent ont peut-être aidé à résoudre le conflit qui écartèle toujours la Turquie : son « alliance stratégique » avec les États-Unis et sa volonté d'entrer dans l'UE.

Les élections de novembre dernier qui ont mis au pouvoir le Parti pour le développement et la justice (AKP) furent précédées de désaccords entre les membres de la coalition alors au pouvoir au sujet de la mise en place des réformes exigées par l'EU. Certains libéraux de cette coalition « séculaire » ont démissionné du gouvernement pour rejoindre les islamistes et ainsi pousser à la réforme à travers le parlement.

Après son arrivée au pouvoir, les leaders de l'AKP, d'anciens islamistes qui se réinventèrent sous l'étiquette de « démocrates conservateurs », ont mis toute leur énergie dans des négociations avec les États-Unis, l'UE et l'ONU sur des sujets aussi variés que Chypre et l'Irak, les droits linguistiques des Kurdes et d'autres questions de Droits de l'homme propre à la Turquie. Ayant souffert des pratiques abusives de l'État turc laïque et reconnaissant que les Droits de l'homme doivent être protégés à tous les niveaux, l'AKP s'est posé comme un interlocuteur crédible vis-à-vis de l'occident. Les États-Unis, accaparés par leur crainte d'un « clash des civilisations » entre les islamistes et l'occident, ont vu dans le visage moderne et occidentalisé de l'AKP des circonstances favorables et ont exhorté l'UE à intégrer la Turquie.

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