解放日

在我七岁那一年,就是1960年,我的祖母安朱丽卡让我明白了1945年5月8日的意义:那一天纳粹德国投降,二战在欧洲结束。当时我们正在诺曼底度暑假。在那里,欧洲挣脱纳粹统治的纪念日是从1944年6月6日盟国登陆西欧那一天算起的。一天傍晚,我听到父母和祖母在谈论过去。我已不记得谈话的细节,但是耳边始终回响着当时祖母长舒了一口气说的那句话:“感谢上帝,我们输了那场战争。”

从一个孩子的角度看,把失败当成一件好事确实不容易理解。但无疑,祖母把失败和解放等同起来是正确的。我对她45年前教给我的这一课思考的越多,就越能看清楚另外一个不太显露的层面:是“我们”输了这场战争。作为一个民族来讲,德国人并不只是那一小撮被叫作“纳粹”的罪恶并注定会失败的人的无辜牺牲品。“纳粹主义”是无数德国人内心根深蒂固的理念,每一个德国人都应对德国的残暴行为负责任,反思自己是否曾经固守过这一理念。

今天的德国,绝大多数人赞成:不仅对于欧洲,对德国自身来讲, 1945年5月8日也是一个解放日。相对1960年的公众看法而言,这当然是个巨大的进步。但自相矛盾的地方在于, 这其中可能包含了一种叫作“健忘”的因素,因为它往往掩藏了一个事实:有解放就必然有军事上的胜利。引用我祖母的说法,解放者并不是“我们”,而是“他们”。

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